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3. Adam and all his posterity were ruined by this fatal transgression. It opened the sluice to all that flood of miseries that has overspread the face of the earth. At this gate sin and death entered into the world, where they will reign till time shall be no more. God is just and holy; and if the first sin had not deserved this punishment, it would not have been inflicted with such a mark of indignation. I shall conclude with a few inferences. 1. Say not when ye are tempted, it is but a little sin, and therefore ye may act it. Consider, that which in the commission is but as the little cloud, no bigger than a man's hand, when God comes to judgment, or conscience gets up, will cover the face of the heavens. Little do ye know what a small temptation may be big with. A man may drown in a little rivulet as well as in the deep sea. 2. Then God’s will is a sufficient bar to hold us back from any thing, if we would be safe. And therefore let us know, that where there is no more to be a hedge to us but the bare command of God, if we leap over it, a serpent will bite us. Ah! how few know what it is to be restrained by a bare command of God! Ah the generality leap over the hedge of God's will and law, and live as if there were no restraint upon them from the God of heaven, who will severely punish all transgressions of his law. 3. Beware of the pleasure of your senses, and the pride of life. The lust of the eye and the lust of the flesh ruined the world at first, and do so still. The devil shoots his darts by the eye into the soul, which is weaker now than it was in the primitive state, and more liable to deception. Therefore watch your eyes and ears. Have a care of sensuality. Eating ruined Adam and Eve; and still ruins many, who eat not for God or his glory, but to satisfy their sensual appetite, as they did. 4. Lastly, O prize Christ, who to redeem lost man, did hang upon a tree, and drink the cup of wrath as the bitter fruits of sin, and was buried in a garden. The first Adam ate of the forbidden tree, and Christ hung on the cursed tree. Adam's preposterous love to his wife made him sin, and Christ's love to his spouse made him suffer. Our first parents pleased their sensual appetite with the taste of the pleasant fruit of the forbidden tree, and therefore Christ got vinegar mixed with gall to drink upon the cross-tree. Adam sinned in a garden, and in a garden was Christ buried. By eating the forbidden fruit, death came upon all men to condemnation; and by eating the flesh, and drink. ing the blood of Christ, life is brought to the soul. Othen, sinners, flee unto the Lord Jesus Christ, who hath restored that which the first Adam took away; and ye shall be rein. stated in all that happiness and favour with God which he forfeited by eating the forbidden fruit.
Romans v. 19.-For as by one man's disobedience many were
made sinners; so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
HIS text consists of two propositions. The first is, By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. Where consider, s 1. Who that one man was. It was Adam. This is plain from ver. 14. and to no other can it agree. 2. What that disobedience of his was. It was his first sin, the eating of the forbidden fruit. This was that sin that first broke into the world, and opened the door to death, ver, 12. This was the transgression of Adam, ver, 14. that offence or fall, ver, 15, the offence of one, or, as the Greek will bear, the one offence ‘tou henos paraptomati, here called disobedience, for thereby he hearkened to the devil, not to God. 3. Whom it concerned; many. This is in effect the same with the all mentioned ver. 14. But the alteration of the phrase is not without reason: for there is an exception here of the man Christ, of whom he speaks in the next clause. It reached many men, but not all simply ; he, and he only, was excepted. 4. How it touched them; they were made sinners by it. Now, there are only two ways how men might be made sinners by the disobedience of Adam, viz. either by impu. tation or imitation. The last is not meant. (1.) Because some of those many who are made sinners, are not capable of imitation or actual sin, viz. infants. (2.) Because we are
made righteous, not by the imitation, but imputation, of Christ's righteousness; but as we are made righteous by the one, so we are made sinners by the other. 5. The foundation of this imputation, which is a relation betwixt the one and the many here implied; for unless there had been some bond of union betwixt the one and many, the sin of that one could not have been imputed to the many. There was indeed a natural bond betwixt him and us: but this was not the ground of the imputation; for we have such an union with our immediate parents, whose sin is not thus imputed. It behoved them to be a moral bond, by the way of a covenant, he being the representative of many in the covenant of works. From these words there arises this doctrine, viz. Doct. “The covenant being made with Adam, not only for himself, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him, in his first transgression.’ In discoursing this doctrine, I shall shew, I. What sin of Adam's it was that they who sinned and fell with him, sinned and fell in. II. Who they were that sinned and fell in Adam. III. How the first sin of Adam comes to be imputed to us. IV. Conclude with some inferences. I. I am to shew what sin of Adam's it was that they who sinned and fell with him, sinned and fell in. It was his first sin, the eating of the forbidden fruit. That sin is also their sin. This was the sin that broke the covenant of works. Other sins of Adam are not imputed to them, more than those of any other private persons. For he was a head only of obedience, not of suffering. So then, Adam quickly be. taking himself to the covenant of grace, and placing himself under another head as a private man, ceased to be the head in the covenant of works. Adam had all his children in one ship to carry them to Immanuel's land; by his negligence he dashed the ship on a rock, and broke it all in pieces; and so he and his lay foundering in a sea of guilt: Jesus Christ lets out the second covenant as a rope to draw them to the shore. Adam for himself lays hold on it, while others hold by the broken boards of the ship, till they be by the power of grace enabled to quit them too, as he was. Vol. I. Q q
II. I proceed to shew who they were that sinned and fell in Adam. They were all mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation. So, 1. Christ is excepted. Adam's sin was not imputed to the man Christ. This is plain from Heb. vii. 26. He was separated from sinners, and was not infected with the plague whereof he was to be the cleanser. And so Christ comes not in under Adam as head, but is opposed to Adam as another head in the text. Christ was indeed a Son of Adam, as appears from his ge. o, brought up to Adam, Luke iii. And it was neces. sary he should be so, that he might be our near kins. man, and that the same nature that sinned might suffer. But he came not of him by ordinary generation : the exordinariness of his descent lay in that he was born of a virgin. And upon this account he came not in under Adam in the covenant of works; for Christ was not born by virtue of that blessing of marriage given before the fall, Gen. i. 28. but by virtue of a covenant-promise made after the fall, Gen. iii. 15. So that Adam could represent none in that covenant, but such as were to spring from him by virtue of that blessing: 2. All mankind besides sinned and fell with Adam in that first transgression. His sin of eating the forbidden fruit is imputed to them; i. e. is reckoned theirs, as if they had committed it. Consider, , (1.) The scripture plainly testifies, that all sinned in him, Rom. v. 12. “By one man's sin, death entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.” Hence it is plain, that death has not come into the world but in pursuit of sin; all die, for all have sinned. Infants are not exempted more than others. We see graves of an infant's length; yea, sometimes the womb is made their grave, and they get a coffin instead of a cradle. It is long ere infants laugh, but they come into the world crying; a sure evidence of misery. What have they done? What could they do * Yet God is just, and is not pursuing innocents. What then can be the quarrel but this, that they are taken prisoners for the debt contracted by their father? ver. 14. (2.) All fell with him into misery by that sin. Now, a just God will not involve the innocent with the guilty in the same punishment. Consider,
[1..] All fell under the guilt of eternal wrath for that sin, Rom. v. 16, 18. “The judgment was by one to condemnation.—By the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation.” Now, where there is a communion of guilt there must needs be a communion of sin; for the law can bind none over to punishment but for sin. * All die in Adam, says the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 22. but it is only the soul that sins that shall die, Ezek. xviii. 4. therefore all sinned in Adam.  All fell under the loss of God's image, and the corruption of nature with him. How comes it that all men must say with David, Psal. li. 5. “Behold I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me?’ Take away the imputation of Adam's sin, and there is no foundation for the corruption of nature. It must be some sin that God punishes with the deprivation of original righteousness, which can be no other than the first sin of Adam. [3.] All the punishments inflicted on Adam and Eve, for that sin, as specified in Gen. iii. are common to mankind, their posterity; and therefore the sin must be so too. III. I come now to shew how the first sin of Adam comes to be imputed to us. The great reason of this is, because we are all included in Adam's covenant. The covenant was made with him, not only for himself, but for all his posterity. Consider here, 1. It was the covenant of works that was made with Adam, the condition whereof was perfect obedience. This was the first covenant. As for the covenant of grace, it was made with the second Adam. 2. It was made with him for himself. That was the way he himself was to attain perfect happiness; his own stock was in that ship. 3. It was made not only for himself, but for all his posterity descending from him by ordinary generation. So that he was not here as a mere private person, but as a public person, the moral head and representative of all mankind. Hence the scripture holds forth Adam and Christ, as if there never had been any but these two men in the world, 1 Cor. xv. 47. “The first man is of the earth, earthy, (says he); the second man is the Lord from heaven.” And this he does, because they were two public persons, each of them having under them persons represented by them,