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Thirdly, Why did God make man male and female? 1. That man might have a meet help, Gen. ii. 18. ; and this was the meetest help for the comfort of life, (however uncomfortable sin has now made it); otherwise God had given Adam a friend, and not a wife. Hence the endear. ments of conjugal Society, when discreetly and properly entered into and cultivated, are found, even in our presentim. perfect state, far preferable to those arising from the strictest and closest friendships among men. 2. For the lawful propogation of mankind, Gen. i. 27, 28. that there might be a godly seed, Mal. ii. 15. and for a remedy against all inordinate lusts and libidinous desires. II. Let us now consider God's making man after his own image. Here I shall shew, 1. Who was created after God’s image; and 2. Wherein this image consisted. First, I am to shew who was created after the image of God. It was both the man and the woman, as is clear from the text. In this respect, indeed, there was one thing wherein the man excelled the woman, which is taken notice of by the apostle, 1 Cor. xi. 7. ‘He is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of the man.” Not but that the woman is the image of God in knowledge, righteousness. and holiness, as well as the man: but the man is the image of God in respect of that authority which he has over his wife, who is the glory of man in respect of her subjection to him. So that what we say of the man as to his being created after the divine image, must be understood of the WOman to O. Secondly, I will shew wherein the image of God, in which our first parents were made, consisted. Abstracting from the spirituality of their souls, and the erect and graceful posture of their bodies, peculiar to rational creatures alone, which are but a faint shadow of the image of God, (if they can with any propriety be called a shadow of it at all), this image doth principally at least shine in the soul, and those glorious qualities wherewith man was endued, that is, both the man and the woman. 1. The image of God, after which man was created, con: sisted in knowledge, Col. i. 10. He was created wise: Not
hat he knew all things, for that is proper to the omniscient
*. eing alone; but he was ignorant of nothing that he was
obliged to know; he had allthe knowledgethat was necessary for life and godliness. He had clear and distinct apprehensions of God, his nature and perfections, far superior to any knowledge of that kind that can now be acquired by the most diligent and the most laboured researches of human industry. And we can hardly suppose that he was ignorant of the great mystery of the Trinity, considered abstractly; as it was most certainly the second person who appeared to and conversed with him." This knowledge or wisdom of man appeared in his knowledge of the miraculous formation of Eve, whose nature and duty, as well as his own towards her, he declares; which he could not know but by a prophetical spirit. The primitive pair had God’, law written on their hearts, Rom. ii. 15. even that same law which was afterwards written on tables of stone, and promulgated from mount Sinai. It was consecrated with them; so that no sooner were they man and woman, than they were knowing and intelligent creatures, endowed with all the knowledge necessary for their upright state. Adam's giving names to the beasts, and those such as were expressive of their natures, Gen. ii. 19. was a great evidence of his knowledge of nature. Thus his knowledge reached from the sun, that glorious fountain of light, to the meanest glow-worm that shines in the hedge. And that God gave them dominion over the earth and all the inferior creatures, is an evidence that they were endued with the knowledge of managing civil affairs, which a wise man will manage with discretion. 2. The image of God consisted in righteousness, Eph. iv. 24. There was a perfect conformity in his will to the will of God. He was endued with a disposition to every good thing, Eccl. vii. 29. ‘God made man upright.” His will was straight with God's will, not bending to the right or left hand, without any irregular bias or inclination. And he had full power and ability to fulfil the whole law of God. As, in respect of knowledge, he perfectly knew the whole extent of his duty, so he was created with sufficient powers for the due performance thereof. 3. It consisted in holiness, Eph. iv. 24. Man's affections were pure and holy, without being tinctured with any vitious appetite. They were regular and orderly, free from all dis
* The learned Witsius may be consulted upon this head, Oeconomy of the Coveaants, book i. chap. 2. § 5, et seq.
order and distemper. They were set on lawful objects, and that in a right manner, loving what God loved, and hating what he hated; loving and delighting in God with all his heart, strength, soul and mind. Yet all this happy disposition was mutable, he was not confirmed therein, nor set be. yond the reach of falling therefrom, as the event has mournfully shewed. This is that image of God wherein man was created, consisting in original righteousness, where his reason was naturally subject to God, his will to his reason, and his af. fections to his will, and consequently all duly subordinated to God, and directed to him, without any propensity or inclination to evil. A signal of this was, that both our first parents were naked, and yet were not ashamed, nor susceptive of shame. That man was created in this condition, wise, altogether righteous, and holy, is not only clear from the above-eited scriptures, but is also agreeable to reason; which suggests, that nothing impure or imperfect, nothinghaving any vitieus tendency or inclination, could proceed out of the hands of an holy God, who cannot be the author of evil. Man was created after the image of God; and in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, the scripture shews us, the image of God consists. Moreover, God made all very good, Gen. i. 31. Man's goodness consists in these excellent qualities; and without these he would not have been fit for the end of his creation. How was it possible for him to have exercised the dominion he was invested with over the creatures, or served his Creator in the manner that became him, without such endowments : Hence I infer, (1.) That man was not created in pure naturals, that is, with bare faculties, neither good nor evil. For “God made man upright, Eccl. vii. 29. (2.) That there was not naturally in man a combat betwixt the flesh and the spirit, betwixt reason and appetite; no inclination to sin, no lustings of the flesh, or the inferior faculties of the soul. For this corrupt will or inelination is sin properly and truly, as the apostle shews, Rom. vii. 7. and the fountain of all sin. And to say, that these dispositions were in man at his original formation, makes God indeed the author of sin; seeing he made (as they falsely pretend) man of such matter as is necessarily accompanied with this corrupt will and depraved inclination. For says the apostle, * All that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world, 1 John ii. 16. (3.) That original righteousness was natural to man, and not supernatural in the primitive state. Natural it was, in so far as it was concreated with him, and was necessary to the perfection of man as he came out of the creating hands of God; and was not added to be as a bridle to his natural inclinations to evil, whereof he had none. (4.) That Adam had the same spiritual strength in innocency wherewith now the regenerate do believe in Christ; having a power to do whatsoever God should command, and to believe whatever he should reveal. 4. The image of God consisted consequently at least in dominion over the inferior creatures, whereby he had a right to dispose of them according to his pleasure, Gen. i. 26, 27.; which was a resemblance of the supreme dominion of God over the creatures, though not absolute and unlimited, but dependent on God. This was evidenced by the beasts being brought to Adam, in token of their subjection to him, and his imposing names on them expressive of their natures and properties. The image of God seated in man's spiritual and immortal soul, endued with understanding, will, and affections, shone forth also in his body, which had a wonderful beauty in it, and such an admirable contexture of parts, adapted to their several uses and ends, as shewed it was intended for an immortal duration. There was no blemish, defect, nor disease, to be found in him. He was not liable to any attack by gout or gravel, or any tormenting pain. All the humours of his body were in a just temperament and disposition, calculated to prevent any distemper which might tend to the dissolution of that excellent constitution. His senses were all quick and lively, able to perform with vigour and delight their several operations. He was immortal in this state; and not subject to the attacks of death. Though his body was composed of jarring elements, which had a natural tendency to dissolution, yet the soul was endued with such virtue as to embalm the body, and preserve it from the least degree of corruption. The tree of life was the sacramental pledge of man's immortality. The erect figure of his Vol. I. C c
body looking towards heaven, and the majesty that is in his countenance, shewed men to be the chief of the works of God in this lower world".
I shall shut up all with a few inferences, lo
1. Ah! how are we fallen from heaven! What a lament. able change has sin brought on man! It has defaced the mo. ral image of God, with which man's soul was beautifully decorated in his primitive state, and rent in pieces that plea. sant picture of himself which God set up in this lower world. This stately fabric lies now in ruins, and calls us to lament over its ruins with weeping eyes and grieved hearts. Now there is ignorance in the mind, instead of that knowledge of God and divine things, with which it was richly furnish. ed in its primitive state. The understanding, that as a lamp or candle shone brightly, is now enveloped with darkness. The will, that was exactly conformable to the will of God, and naturally disposed to comply with every intimation thereof, is now filled with irregularity, enmity, and rebellion against God and his law. The affections that were all re. gular, holy, and pure, are now disordered and distempered, placed upon and eagerly bent towards improper and sinful objects, loving and doating upon what men should hate, hating what they should love, joying in what they ought to mourn for, glorying in what is shameful, abhorring the chief good, and desiring what is ruinous to them. All the mem. bers of the body that were subordinated to the upright mind, and entirely at its command, are now in rebellion, and mislead and enslave the mind and superior faculties, And the creatures that were man's humble servants, ready to execute his commands, are now risen up against him, and the least of them having a commission, would prove more than a match for him. Nay, it is with difficulty and much pains that any of them are brought to engage in his service. Ah! how dismal is man's case! The crown is fallen from our head: wo unto us that we have sinned. Let us weep and mourn over our ruined state, and never rest till we get it repaired by faith in the Lord Jesus, the great Repairer of this spiritual breach.
* Several useful observations relative to man's original state may be seen in the ar. thor's book, entitled, Human Nature in its Fourfold State, state 1 under the title, "I Man's Original Righteousness; and in his treatise, entitled, A Piew of the Covens" of Works, published in 1772, p. 12, 13, 14.