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The important words of a fentence, which I eall naturally emphatical, have a claim to a considerable force of voice ; but particles, fuch, as of, to, as; and, &c. require no force of utterance, unless they happen to be emphatical, which is rarely the case. No person can read or speak well, unless he understands what he reads ;. and the fenfe will always determin what words are emphatical. It is a matter of the highest confequerice, therefore that a speaker should clearly comprehend the meaning of what he delivers, that he may know where to lay the emphasis. This may be illustrated by a single example. This short question will you ride to town to day ? is capable of four different meanings, and conseqently of four different answers, according to the placing of the emphafis. If the emphasis is laid upon you, the queltion is hether you will ride to town or another person. If the emphasis is laid on ridé, the question is, whether you will ride or go on foot. If the emphasis is laid on town, the quefion is, whether you will ride to town or to another place. If the emphasis is laid on to day, the question is whether you will ride to day or some other day. Thus the whole meaning of a phrase often depends on the emphasis ; and it is absolutely necessary that it should be laid on the proper words.
Cadence is a falling of the voice in pronouncing the closing syllable of a period. This ought not to be uniform, but different at the close of different sentences. *
But in interrogative sentences, the sense often requires the closing word or fyllable to be pronounced with an clevated voice. This, however, is only when the last word is emphatical; as in this question, " Betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kiss?" Here the fubject of enquiry is, whether the common token of love and benevolence is prostituted to the purpose of trechery; the force of the question depends on the last word, which is therefore pronounced with an elevation of voice. But in this question,
But in this question, “ Where is boasting * We may observe that good speakers always pronounce upon a certain key; for altho they modulate the voice according to the various ideas they express, yet they retain the same pitch of voice. ---Accent and Emphasis require no elevation of the voice, but a more forcible expreffion on the fame key. Cadence respects the last syllable only of the fentence, which fyllable is actually pronounced with a lower tone of voics ; but, when words , of several fyllables close a period, all the fylo. lables but the last are caounced on the same ley as the rest of the entence,
then " The emphatical word is boafting, which of course requires an elevation of voice.
The most natural pitch of voice is that in which we speak in common conversation. Whenever the voice is raised above this key, pronunciation is difficult and fatiguing. There is a difference between a loud and a high voice. A person may fpeak much louder than he does in ordinary discourse, without any elevation of voice : and he may be heard distinêtly, upon the same key, either in a private room, or in a large assembly.
RULE IV. Let the Sentiments you express be accompanied with proper Tones,
Looks, and Gestures. By tones are meant the various modulations of voice by which we naturally express the emotions and paffiops. By looks we mean the expression of the emotions and paffions in the countenance.
Gestures are the various motions of the hands or body; which correspond to the several sentiments and passions which the speaker defigns to express.
All these should be perfectly natural. They should be the fame which we use in common conversation. A speaker, should endeavor to feel what he speaks ; for the perfection of reading and speaking is to pronounce the words as if the fena timents were our own.
If a person is rehearsing the words of an angry man, he fhould assume the same furious looks; his eyes should flash with rage, his gekures should be violent, and the tone of his voice threatening. If kindness is' to be expressed, the countenance Thould be calm and placid, and wear a smile'; the tone should be mild, and the motion of the hand inviting. An example of the first, we have in these words : “ Depart from me, ye corsed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.". An example of the last, in these words, “ Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you, from the foundation of the world."
A man who should repeat these different paffages with the fame looks, tones and geflures, would pass, with his hearers, for a very injudicious speaker.
The whole art of reading and speaking all the rules of eloquénce may be comprised in this concise direction ; Let a reader or speaker express cvery word as if the sentiments were hit onun.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS for expressing certains
PASSIONS OR SENTIMENTS.
(From the Art of Speaking.) MIRTH or Laughter opens the mouth, crisps the nose, leflens the aperture of the eyes, and shakes the whole frame.
Perplexity draws down the eye-brows, hangs the head, cafts down the eyes, closes the eye lids, shuts the mouth, and pinches the lips; then suddenly the whole body is agitated, the person walks about busily, stops abruptly, talks to himself, &c.
Vexation adds to the foregoing, complaint, fretting, and lamenting.
Pity draws down the eye-brows, opens the mouth, and draws together the features.
Grief is expressed by weeping, itamping with the feet, lifting up the eyes to heaven, &c.
Melancholy is gloomy and motionless, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are cast down and half Thut, words few, and interrupted with sighs. Fear opens
eyes and mouth, fhortens the nofe, draws down the eye-brows, gives the countenance an air of wildness ; the face becomes pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the fides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats violently, the breath is quick, the voice weak and trembling. Sometimes it produces shrieks and fainting.
the face from the beholders, covers it with blumes, casts down the head and eyes, draws down the eye*brows, makes the tongue to faulter, or strikes the person dumb.
Remorse casts down the countenance, and clouds it with sanxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash, and the right hand beats the breast.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The voice is firm, and the accent strong and articulate.
Boasting is loud and blustering. The eyes ftare, the face is red and bloated, the mouth pouts, the voice is hollow, the arms akimbo, the head nods in a threatening manner, the right filt sometimes clenched and brandished.
Pride assumes a lofty look, the eyes open, the mouth pouting, the lips pinched, the words now and stiff, with an air of importance, the arms akimbo, and the legs at a distance, or
ing large ftrides,
Shame turos away
Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the eye. brows a little, so as to give the person an air of gravity.
Commanding requires a peremptory tone of voice, and a se. vere look
Inviting is expressed with a smile of complacency, thehand with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body.
Hope brightens the countenance, arches the eye-brows, gives the eyes an eager wishful look, opens the mouth to half a smile, bends the body a little forward. Love lights up a
upon the countenance; the forehead is smoothed, the eye-brows arched, the mouth a little open and smiling, the eyes languishing, the countenance affumes an eager wishful look, mixed with an air of fatisfaction. The ac. cents are soft and winning, the tone of the voice flattering, &c. Wonder
opens the eyes, and makes them appear prominent. The body is fixed in a contracted stooping posture, the mouth is open, the hands often raised. Wonder at first strikes a person damb ; then breaks forth into exclamations.
Curiosity opens the eyes and mouth, lengthens the neck, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one poiture, &c.
Anger is expressed by rapidity, interruption, noise and trepidation, the neck is Aretched out, the head nodding in a threatening manner. The eyes red, staring, rolling, sparkling; the eye-brows drawn down over them, the forehead wrinkled, the nostrils stretched, every vein fwelled, every muscle strained. When anger is violent, the mouth is opened, and drawn towards the ears, shewing the teeth in a graihing pofture ; the feet stamping, the right hand thrown out, threatening with a clenched fift, and the whole frame agitated.
Peevisbness is expressed in nearly the same manner, but with more moderation; the eyes a squint upon the object of dif. pleasure, the upper lip drawn up disdainfully
Malice sets the jaws, or gnashes with the teeth, sends flashes from the eyes, draws the mouth down towards the ears, clenches the fist and bends the elbows. Envy is expressed in the fame manner, but more moderately.
Aversion turns the face from the object, the hands spread out to keep it off.
Jealousy Thews itself by restlessness, peevishness, thoughtfulness, anxiety, abscence of inind. It is a mixture of a variety of passions, and assumes a variety of appearances.
Contempt assumes a haughty air ; the lips closed, and pouting.
Modesty or humility bends the body forward, cafts down the eyes. The voice is low, the words few, and tone of utterance submislive.
In the following Lessons, there are many examples of antithesis,
or opposition in the sense. For the benefit of the learner, fome of these examples are distinguished by Italic Letters ; and the words fo marked are emphatical.
CHAP. I. To be very active in laudible pursuits is the distinguishing characteristic of a man of njerit.
There is a heroic innocence, as well as a heroic courage:
There is a mean in all things. Even virtue it felf has its ftated limits, which not being frictly observed, it ceases to be virtue.
It is wifer to prevent a quarrel before hand, than to revenge it afterwards.
It is much better to reprove, than to be angry fecretly.
is more heroic than that which torments envy by doing good.
The discretion of a men deferreth his anger, and it is his glory to pafs over a transgression.
Money, like manure, does no good till it is spread.
There is no real use of riches, except in the distribution ; the relt is all conceit.
A wise man will defire no more than what he may get jully, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and live upon contentedly.
A contented mind, and a good conscience, will make a man happy in all conditions. He knows not how to fear, who Wares to die.
There is but one way of fortifying the foul against all gloomy persages and terrors of the mind, and that is, by fecuring to ourselves the friendship and protection of that Being who dir. poses of events and governs futurity. Philosophy is then only valuable, when it serves for the law of life, and not for the oftentation of fcience.