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so I'll tell her, the next time I see her: for my part, I'll meddle nor make no more in the matter.

Tro. Pandarus,

Pan. Not I.

Tro. Sweet Pandarus,

Pan. Pray you, speak no more to me; I will leave all as I found it, and there an end. [Exit PAN. An Alarum. Tro. Peace, you ungracious clamours! peace, rude sounds!

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Fools on both sides! Helen must needs be fair,
When with your blood you daily paint her thus.
I cannot fight upon this argument;

It is too starv'd a subject for my sword.
But Pandarus-O gods, how do you plague me!
I cannot come to Cressid, but by Pandar;
And he 's as tetchy to be woo'd to woo,
As she stubborn-chaste against all suit.
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love,
What Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we?
Her bed is India; there she lies, a pearl:
Between our Ilium,4 and where she resides,
Let it be call'd the wild and wandering flood;
Ourself, the merchant; and this sailing Pandar,
Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark.5
Alarum. Enter ENEAS.

Ene. How now, prince Troilus? wherefore not afield? Tro. Because not there; This woman's answer sorts,7

4- Ilium,] Was the palace of Troy. Johnson.

Ilium, properly speaking, is the name of the city; Troy, that of the country. Steevens.


this sailing Pandar,

Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark.] So, in The Merry Wives of Windsor:

"This punk is one of Cupid's carriers;
"Clap on more sails," &c. Malone.

6 How now, prince Troilus? wherefore not afield?] Shakspeare, it appears from various lines in this play, pronounced Troilus improperly as a dissyllable; as every mere English reader does at this day.

So also, in his Rape of Lucrece:

"Here manly Hector faints, here Troilus swounds."



sorts,] i. e. fits, suits, is congruous. So, in King Henry V "It sorts well with thy fierceness."


For womanish it is to be from thence.
What news, Æneas, from the field to-day?
Ene. That Paris is returned home, and hurt.
Tro. By whom, Æneas?

Troilus, by Menelaus.
Tro. Let Paris bleed: 'tis but a scar to scorn;
Paris is gor'd with Menelaus' horn.

[Alarum. Ene. Hark! what good sport is out of town to-day! Tro. Better at home, if would I might, were may.But, to the sport abroad;—Are you bound thither? Ene. In all swift haste. Tro.

Come, go we then together. [Exeunt.


The same. A Street.


Cres. Who were those went by?

Cres. And whither go they?

Queen Hecuba, and Helen.

Up to the eastern tower, Whose height commands as subject all the vale, To see the battle. Hector, whose patience Is, as a virtue, fix'd, to-day was mov'd:

8 p

Hector, whoes patience

Is, as a virtue, fix'd,] Patience sure was a virtue, and therefore cannot, in propriety of expression, be said to be like one. We should read:

Is as the virtue fix'd,·

i. e. his patience is as fixed as the goddess Patience itself. So, we find Troilus a little before saying:

"Patience herself, what goddess ere she be,

"Doth lesser biench at sufferance than I do.”

It is remarkable that Dryden, when he altered this play, and found this false reading, altered it with judgment to:


whose patience

"Is fix'd like that of heaven"

Which he would not have done had he seen the right reading here given, where his thought is so much better and nobler expressed. Warburton.

I think the present text may stand. Hector's patience was as a virtue, not variable and accidental, but fixed and constant. If I would alter it, it should be thus:

He chid Andromache, and struck his armourer;
And, like as there were husbandry in war,9
Before the sun rose, he was harness'd light,1

Is all a virtue fix'd,

All, in old English, is the intensive or enforcing particle. Johnson. I had once almost persuaded myself that Shakspeare wrote, whose patience

Is, as a statue fix'd.

So, in The Winter's Tale, sc. ult:

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Hector, whose patience

"The statue is but newly fix'd."

The same idea occurs also in the celebrated passage in Twelfth Night: ""

— sat like patience on a monument.”

The old adage-Patience is a virtue, was perhaps uppermost in the compositor's mind, and he therefore inadvertently substituted the one word for the other A virtue fixed may, however, mean the stationary image of a virtue. Steevens.


husbandry in war,] So, in Macbeth:

Troilus alludes to

"There 's husbandry in heaven." Steevens. Husbandry means economical prudence. Hector's early rising. So, in King Henry V: our bad neighbours make us early stirrers, "Which is both healthful and good husbandry." Malone.

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1 Before the sun rose, he was harness'd light,] Does the poet mean (says Mr. Theobald) that Hector had put on light armour? Mean! what else could he mean? He goes to fight on foot; and was not that the armour for his purpose? So, Fairfax, in Tasso's Jerusałem:

"The other princes put on harness light
"As footmen use.


Yet, as if this had been the highest absurdity, he goes on, Or does he mean that Hector was sprightly in his arms even before sunrise? or is a conundrum aimed at, in sun rose and harness'd light? Was any thing like it? But, to get out of this perplexity, he tells us, that a very slight alteration makes all these constructions unnecessary, and so changes it to harness-dight. Yet indeed the very slightest alteration will, at any time, let the poet's sense through the critic's fingers and the Oxford editor very contentedly takes up what is left behind, and reads harness-dight too, in order, as Mr. Theobald well expresses it, to make all construction unnecessary. Warburton.

How does it appear that Hector was to fight on foot rather today than on any other day? It is to be remembered, that the an eient heroes never fought on horseback; nor does their manner of fighting in chariots seem to require less activity than on foot. Johnson.

It is true that the heroes of Homer never fought on horseback; yet such of them as make a second appearance in the neid, like

And to the field goes he; where every flower
Did, as a prophet, weep what it foresaw
In Hector's wrath.


What was his cause of anger? Alex. The noise goes, this: There is among the Greeks

A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector;
They call him, Ajax.


Good; And what of him?
Alex. They say he is a very man per se,3
And stands alone.

Cres. So do all men; unless they are drunk, sick, or have no legs.

Alex. This man, lady, hath robbed many beasts of their particular additions; he is as valiant as the lion,

their antagonists the Rutulians, had cavalry among their troops. Little can be inferred from the manner in which Ascanius and the young nobility of Troy are introduced at the conclusion of the funeral games; as Virgil very probably, at the expence of an anachronism, meant to pay a compliment to the military exercises instituted by Julius Cæsar, and improved by Augustus. It appears from different passages in this play, that Hector fights on horseback; and it should be remembered that Shakspeare was indebted for most of his materials to a book which enumerates Esdras and Pythagoras among the bastard children of King Priamus. Our author, however, might have been led into his mistake by the manner in which Chapman has translated several parts of the Iliad, where the beroes mount their chariots or descend from them. Thus, Book VI, speaking of Glaucus and Diomed: from horse then both descend." Steevens.


If Dr. Warburton had looked into The Destruction of Troy, already quoted, he would have found, in every page, that the leaders on each side were alternately tumbled from their horses by the prowess of their adversaries. Malone.

2 where every flower Did, as a prophet, weep Dream, Vol. II, p. 410:


-] So, in A Midsummer Night's

"And when she weeps, weeps every little flower,
66 'Lamenting" &c. Steevens.

- per se,] So, in Chaucer's Testament of Cresseide:
"Of faire Cresseide the floure and a per se
"Of Troie and Greece."

Again, in the old comedy of Wily Beguiled: "In faith, my sweet honeycomb, I'll love the a per se a."

Again, in Blurt Master Constable, 1602:

"That is the a per se of all, the creame of all." Steevens.

churlish as the bear, slow as the elephant: a man into whom nature hath so crowded humours, that his valour is crushed into folly, his folly sauced with discretion: there is no man hath a virtue that he hath not a glimpse of; nor any man an attaint, but he carries some stain of it: he is melancholy without cause, and merry against the hair: He hath the joints of every thing; but every thing so out of joint, that he is a gouty Briarcus, nany hands and no use; or purblind Argus, all eyes and no sight.

Cres. But how should this man, that makes me smile, make Hector angry?

Alex. They say, he yesterday coped Hector in the battle, and struck him down; the disdain and shame whereof hath ever since kept Hector fasting and waking.


Cres. Who comes here?

Alex. Madam, your uncle Pandarus.
Cres. Hector's a gallant man.

Alex. As may be in the world, lady.

Pan. What's that? what's that?

Cres. Good morrow, uncle Pandarus.

Pan. Good morrow, cousin Cressid: What do you talk of?-Good morrow, Alexander.-How do you, cousin? When were you at Ilium ? &


their particular additions;] Their peculiar and characte ristic qualities or denominations. The term in this sense is originally forensick. Malone.

So, in Macbeth:


whereby he doth receive
"Particular addition, from the bill
"That writes them all alike."



that his valour is crushed into folly,] To be crushed into folly, is to be confused and mingled with folly, so as that they make one mass together. Johnson.

So, in Cymbeline:

"Crush him together, rather than unfold
"His measure duly." Steevens.

8 against the hair:] Is a phrase equivalent to another now in use-against the grain The French say―à contrepoil. See Vol. VIII, p. 294, n. 6. Steevens.

See Vol. III, p. 77, n 5. Malone.

7 Good morrow, cousin Cressid: What do you talk of? Good mor rew, Alexander.- How do you, cousin?] Good morrow, Alexander,

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