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and ancient souvenirs. So that that education he received, contributed to which was rebellion at Versailles was inspire him with that respect for the legal resistance at Grenoble.

law, which regulated all his conduct, Claude Perier took great pains to as well as member of the Opposition, enforce on the minds of his sons, then as when Prime Minister; and which growing up into life, what he consi- marked his political character with an dered a great fact, and an important ineffaceable stamp of independency, truth, that Dauphiny was not France, firmness, and moderation. It was his in the ordinary acceptation of the love of the law, the triumph of the law, term, but that Dauphiny had certain the domination and rights of the law, rights and privileges similar in princi- which led him to ask those who inple, though not in nature, to those for vited him to join them in an “illegal" which the Basques are now contend- opposition to the “illegal" ordinances ing in their provinces. This senti- of Charles X., “ Who gave you the ment still exists to a certain extent, mission to set yourselves up illegally and we have frequently heard the in- against an illegal measure ? habitants of Dauphiny declare, “ We will petition the King-appeal to the are not Frenchmen, we are Dauphi. Chambers-resort to the Tribunalsnois."

and have recourse to all legal measures At the juncture of which we have - but remember, the King is King, been speaking, a great change took and we are his subjects.” If Casimir place in the “ Opposition" to the Perier had at that moment hastened inonarchical government, which had up to the King-confided in his Soto that time been unanimous. The Ad vereign_and gained access to his ininistration under Brienne had encoun- person-he might have prevailed on tered the resistance of all the bodies that Monarch to withdraw the fatal of the state, because, in their opinion, ordinances. it had wished to oppress them. It in- Casimir Perier received his educacurred under Necker the resistance of tion at the college of the Oratoire at these same bodies, who were wishing Lyons, where his three brothers, Auto secure the power for themselves, gustine, Alexander, and Scipio, alike and oppression for the people. From studied, with their friends Camille being despotic, it had become national, Jordan and Degerando. This college and still they had opposed it. The resembled those of the same order at Parliament had maintained a contest that time; it was animated by at once of authority, and not of public good; an austere and free spirit, which disthe noblesse had reunited themselves tinguished a great religious school, to the tiers-état, rather against the but which exists no longer. The Government than in behalf of the young Periers received there an edupeople. Each of these bodies had de- cation quite in harmony with their manded the States-General, the Par. natural characters, as well as with liament in the hope of ruling them, their family habits. Casimir, the as they had done in 1614, and the youngest of the four, never completed noblesse of resuming their lost power. his studies. His character was too Thus the magistracy proposed as the impressionable and agitated, and the model for the States General of 1789 events which were transpiring in the their form in 1614; and opinion aban. political world occupied his mind much doned it; the noblesse refused to con- more than his classical pursuits. This sent to the double representation of was much to be regretted, and Casimir the Commons, and a division sprang Perier frequently deplored it in his up between these two orders. This after-life. He laboured hard in maled to the convocation of the Notables turer years to regain his lost time, and by Necker. The family of Perier would frequently say, a page at took a deep interest in all these events, fifteen is worth a volume at thirty." but it by no means joined the ultra- He was, when young, more active opposition. It thought well of Necker, than laborious--indolence he could not and confided in the King, but yet its tolerate, but regular and continuous great anxiety was for the triumph of labour did not suit him. His mind ihe " tiers-état." There can, we think, seized quickly that which was prebe no doubt of one fact, and that is, sented to it-applied little—and yet that the political events of the early was never satisfied with its attainments. life of Casimir Perier, and the political He observed more than he learned by

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heart. His passionate and ardent cha- and not unfrequently even regretted racter from fifteen to twenty, was only the Parliament of Vizille. All this kept in bounds by the habit of order was at once natural and praiseworthy. and dignity which he had acquired They desired freedom, but the freeunder paternal discipline. At sixteen dom of the law—they loved libertyyears of age, the beauty of his coun- but they loved justice and humanity tenance, his fine figure, the remarkable expression of his face, his bene. In the year seven of the republic, volent and gracious manners, his caress- (1798), Casimir Perier was drawn by ing and playful habits when his pride the ConscripTION; and he had to take was not wounded or his suspicions up arms for a cause with which he symexcited, interested all who knew him pathized but little. He had seen with in his favour, and gained the suf- distrust the rising powers of Napoleon frages of those who had only known Bonaparte, his expedition to Egypt, and him previously by his apparent frivo- the democratic elections of the year lity, or for his want of application to six. He had rejoiced at the annulling serious pursuits. He was an amiable of those elections by the directorial young man, not naturally gay, but party, and viewed this blow aimed at ardent, quick, impetuous, and yet the ultra-republicans with delight. thoughtful, though but few predicted And yet he could not sympathize with that he would ever become a man of the Directory, for it was neither a connote and eminence in the world. The stitutional nor an imp Govern. gifts of nature appeared lost upon him, ment. It displayed great activity, but for he had no fixedness of purpose, no it was of a narrow and bustling kind, patience, no method. But yet those and Merlin and Treilhaud, who had who understood best the character of succeeded Carnot and Barthelemy, man, and the contending or opposing were only two political pettifoggers. qualifications and defects of the mind, But to Barras, the young Casimir did not hesitate to pronounce that he was especially averse. He saw that had a powerful nature, and an instinc- Barras continued his dissolute course tive superiority and authority which of life, and his directorial regency; he were felt, though not admitted, by his knew that his palace was the resort of elder brothers. Though their acquire- gamesters, women of intrigue, and ments were greater, they regarded him stock-jobbers of every kind. as their equal, and in all political ar- Hostilities had at this moment comguments, even when young, they menced in Italy, and upon the Rhine ; yielded him the palm. In his most two French plenipotentiaries had been juvenile years he was a lover of order, wickedly assassinated, at some distance and defended on all occasions the au- from Rastadt, by Austrian hussars ; thority of his father. During the bad the Directory, apprized of the march of times of the Revolution, Claude Perier the Russian troops, and suspecting had fixed his residence at Paris, having Austria, obtained from the Councils a some of his sons with him, leaving his law, empowering them to raise rewife with his other children at Gre- cruits; and the military conscription noble, to watch over the precious re- placed 200,000 young men at the dismains of a great fortune engulfed in position of the Republic. Casimir the general deluge. He kept his fa- Perier was one of the number.

At mily in a state of ultra-discipline, and this moment the troops belonging to the severity of the father had not al- the most impatient powers, and who ways an agreeable or beneficial effect formed the vanguard of the coalition, on the mind of Casimir.

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had commenced the attack. The King sination of Louis XVI. was a subject of Naples had advanced upon Rome, of deep regret and confusion of mind and the King of Sardinia had levied and spirit to Claude Perier and his troops and threatened the Ligurian Resons. They had taken a deep and public. Casimir left, much against his personal interest in the first events of will, as adjoint du genié,” and in this the French Revolution, and had iden- capacity made the campaign of Italy tified themselves with the rise of the from 1799 to 1801. He distinguished middling classes. But they loathed himself under the walls of Mantua at the excesses of the canaille-abhorred the combat of Santo-Giulio ; but he the injustice of the mob-groaned be- always looked on this period of his peath the despotism of democracy, life as the least interesting, as well as the least useful. In 1801, after the of a most generous heart. His ambi. death of his father, he abandoned the tion was modest-his soul was filled military career to become a merchant, with the most tender affections. He and to carry with him into the com- remembered that his father always mercial and middling classes those intended him to sustain in Dauphiny principles of order, obedience, and the name he had left behind him energy, which had distinguished him and there he therefore fixed-and during the first forty-four years of his there divided his time between the life.

commerce of Grenoble and the manuThe dispersion of the Council of factory of Vizille, where he created Five Hundred by the bayonets of one of those positions of influence and Napoleon had given Casimir Perier a of patronage which are so rare in that distaste for political life. This was country. The French are not essento him a violation of law, a final tially a commercial people. With blow against liberty, and the precur- the exception of Lyons, Grenoble, sor of the dominion of brute force. Alsace, Normandy, St Quentin, Lille, The 18th Brumaire killed the first and Paris, there are no manufactories Revolution. The Ministry of Casimir in France. The manufactories of Perier destroyed the second. Napo- Lyons are undoubtedly very considerleon caused the death of the first by able—and the muslins and printed illegal means. Casimir Perier en- goods of Messrs Kächlin at Malhausured the overthrow of the second by sen, have acquired universal fame. relying solely on the laws and the But when the manufactories of France Charta. But the victory of Marengo are compared with those of England, was followed by a general peace, by or even with those of Belgium, their the treaty of Luneville, and Casimir comparatively insignificant character Perier returned to his hearth and his is rendered visible. The first French home. He hailed the treaty of Amiens Revolution, in destroying large forwith rapture ; and when Bonaparte tunes, in overthrowing public credit, directed all his attention to the inter- and in equalizing the properties of nal prosperity of the republic, Casi- the upper and middling classes, renmir Perier hoped for better days for dered it wholly impossible for France his country; and the act of amnesty to compete with Great Britain for a in favour of the emigrants won for long series of years, unless similar Napoleon the hearts of the Perier fa- disasters should befall the latter counmily. His father had left to his chile try. Large fortunes are indispendren not only a handsome fortune, but sable to the establishment of such mathe yet greater advantage of his name nufactories as those of Birmingham, and his credit. He was a man of no Manchester, Leeds, and Sheffield. ordinary capacity, who formed fine They are national manufactories, and vast establishments, and took part though conducted by individual enin nearly all the commercial institu- terprise, individual labour, and inditions and measures which were cre- vidual capital. The French have ated and adopted in France, after the felt this so much ever since the first Revolution, to raise the commerce and Revolution, that various national and industry of the country. He was one public encouragements have been of the founders of the Bank of France. given to different French manufacHis ten children, in dividing equally tures with the view of rendering them among them his fortune--for the laws permanent; and the tapestry manuof the Revolution had abolished the factories of Beauvais and of the Gobe. last vestiges of the rights of eldest lins, as well as the porcelain manufacchildren-drew yet closer the family tory of Sevres are even conducted by together, and formed between them that the Government itself. The French union which has always subsisted, and have endeavoured to combat with the which has kept the family in a state of default of capital by uniting together independence and elevation in times of five or six moderate fortunes to make difficulty, and under circumstances of one large trading capital—but in alcommercial embarrassment. Three most all cases the partners have quarbrothers, who are now no more, were relled amongst themselves, and the then the chiefs of the family. Nl. Au large establishments have been cut up gustin Perier joined to an enlightened into half-a-dozen small ones. Con. and cultivated mind the solid virtues tinuing to feel the evil of this state

or

of things, the French, at the very lieries are not worked and why? For moment we are writing, are uniting the same reason—there is not capital together in the commercial world to enough to work them on a large scale ; establish joint-stock companies, or and even when they are worked, as is partnerships by shares, for the accom- now more the case than formerly, there plishment of objects which no indivi. are no railroads down to river navigadual fortunes they possess would en- tion, and river navigation is stopped up. able them otherwise to effect. But if There are no canals—or the canals are we examine the prospectuses of a unfinished or blocked up. The price of vast number of these associations, French pig-iron is dearer than that of whát do we see? Why, actually British pig-iron in the French marcompanies formed with capitals of ket, notwithstanding all the protection FOUR, SIX,

ÈIGHT THOUSAND afforded to the products of France by POUNDS!!! The shares are L.4 each a heavy duty on imported iron, and in many, many cases--and whereas a

notwithstanding the expenses of freight banking or commercial house at Bris- and tonnage, port duties, and other tol, Manchester, Liverpool, or Lon- French shipping charges. And what don would sign a cheque for ten is the consequence of this state of times the amount as an ordinary af- things? Why, that to make French fair

, if it were a good one, and pro- railroads, British rails must be used, mised well, taking upon itself the as to make French hardwares, British whole of the operation, without even coals and Belgian coals are consumed. dreaming of a partner or a share, the The French have recently been makFrench will publish prospectuses, ing the experiments of feeding their advertisements, and make appeals and furnaces and manufactories with calls from Bayonne to Boulogne, and French and Belgian coals—but the from Perpignan to St Valley, to ob- supply was not sufficient—and the tain the paltry sums of four, six,,or duty on British coals was obliged to eight thousand pounds! And yet the be lowered, to meet the demand for shareholders in these chandler shop that article-or the French manufac. societies expect to make fortunes— tories making use of coals must have are quite astonished that they do not been altogether stopped. yield large revenues—and point to The reason for all this is clear. England and her vast commercial en- The French have no fortunes. They terprises-just as if any real compari- cannot afford to wait, they cannot af. son could be instituted between the ford to sink capital upon capital in colossal character of the one and the mines and in forges, and to sink mole-bill littleness of the other. The shafts, and to drain mines, and to pump incomes, as well as the insignificant out by steam-engines whole rivers of "capitals," as they are called, of these water. They must have the ready associations are absorbed by the rent, return of the penny. They have not taxes, salaries, and even “stationery” a sufficiency of gold, silver, or credit, consumed in the manufactory, and to wait for years before an enterprise the French have found, and will find, shall be successful. They will find that all these Lilliputian attempts to

their L.4 or their L.20 for shares in vie with the fortunes and manufac- an “ omnibus" or a “ cabriolet esta. tories of Great Britain will ever fail. blishment,” because it is a ready money The credit, fortunes, enterprises, and concernthe returns are immediate confidence of a country are not created --dividends of some sort or other are in years, but in ages—and when once at once paid—and the pot au feu'' destroyed, agęs must again elapse be- of the poor renter is kept boiling. fore they again exist. Look, for in- Nothing has so much astonished the stance, at the present state of the French—no, not even the successes question of iron railways in France. of their own Napoleon-as the perseIn France there is iron_but the iron verance of the shareholders of the mines are not worked. And why? Thames Tunnel in their gigantic Because there is no spare capital to work, notwithstanding the repeated work them on such a scale as to make invasion of the hoary-headed father them profitable. In France there is into the works below. In France coal--and in abundancé-recent ex- such an undertaking might have been periments and soundings have proved conceived, and might have been comthis to demonstration but the cols menced_but if the Seine had twice

on it.

was a

poured its streams into the works, of the lower orders in France, with the old stones and bricks would have their perch of land and their pig upbeen sold“ aux enchères," and the

But we also have visited shareholders would have divided France, in the length and in the amongst them the remnant of the breadth thereof_and we have no he. 'funds and the produce. And let not sitation in saying, that the situation this be ascribed to the wrong cause. both of the manufacturing and the The French do not want either pa- agricultural poor is far, very far sutience or perseverance—but they want perior in England, Scotland, and capital. It is for this reason that Wales, to the peasantry or manufactheir banks and bankers are often em- turing workmen of France. They barrassed to discount £4000; that their are more healthy, cleanly, comfort. manufacturers and manufactories are able, better fed, clothed, housed, and at a stand instead of being in acti- are more moral, and more religious. vity ; that the Government is obliged We have purposely made this disserto propose to take in hand all great tation, because, though the family of works itself; and that at the very Perier did all they could do, with moment we are writing these lines, comparatively large capital, for the appeals are being made in the public commerce and industry of their counjournals of London, Brussels, and try-yet, after all, their resources Amsterdam, to the English, the Bel- were very small indeed, when comgians, and the Dutch, to come for- pared with those of a Manchester ward to take shares in the companies manufacturer. proposed to be formed for the esta- The next son, M. Scipion Perier, blishment of various railroads in

man of profound scientific France. When similar projects are knowledge, deep and unaffected piety started in England, are appeals made - was so virtuous as to be even scru. to the French, the Dutch, and the pulous to a failing-and was uniformly Belgians there ? No-English capi- calm and dignified in the midst of au tal is sufficient for English enterprises impassioned and animated family. - but this is not the case in France- But Scipion was really a man of lively for her merchants have neither the imagination, and even passionate soul precious metals, nor the paper, nor -but he was, during his whole life, the credit sufficient to enable them making one constant effort to repress alone to carry the objects they pro- his ardour, and maintain an external pose into effect.

Look at the sub- dignity and serenity. scription-list for the shares in the Casimir Perier, with a character railroad company from Paris to Brus- less equable, much more susceptible, sels, and we see that though months and with a mind much less adorned, have elapsed since it was begun, the but possessing that coup d'ail whichi sum required cannot be raised, though seizes and perceives truth, which coronly one-fifth is required as a deposit. rectly estimates the possible, and asAnd when we thus write, it is not sures success, associated with Scipion, reproachfully, or spitefully, or vaunt- and founded together at Paris ingly, and with haughtiness; but Banking House, known and respected when we thus write, it is to assert a throughout all Europe. Their spegreat fact, that the Revolution of culations, however, were of a very 1789, or rather of 1793 in France, different nature from those of a London destroyed national credit, private ca- banker. They engaged in all sorts pital, and the means of rendering of mercantile transactions, and the France a powerful commercial coun- bank alone was only the means of try. We know well that we shall be enabling them to carry on their intold that the division of property into dustry with greater advantage. M. small fortunes is the developement of Casimir Perier displayed much penethe “greatest happiness principle" tration, prudence, and judgment—but and Doctor Bowring, who has la- he was never assiduous in the minute boured so long and so unsuccessfully details of business. Whilst Scipion in France in endeavouring to obtain had a prudent and enlightened mind, equal justice for British commerce, the talents of an administrator, the and British merchants, will prate to love of the details of business, and us about his Jeremy Benthamism, the spirit of daily application, he yet and about the comfort and happiness often hesitated as to the course to be

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