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made for me. I have no natural cause of difference with Spain, France, or Holland, and yet by turns I have joined with you in wars against them all. You would not suffer me to make or keep a separate peace with any of them, though I might easily have done it to great advantage. Does your protecting me in those wars give you a right to fleece me? If so, as I fought for you, as well as you for me, it gives me a proportionable right to fleece you. What think you of an American law to make a monopoly of you and your commerce, as you have done by your laws of me and mine? Content yourself with that monopoly if you are wise, and learn justice if you would be respected! Britain. You impudent bh! Am not I

your mother country? Is not that a sufficient title to your respect and obedience ?

Saxony. Mother country! Ha! ha! ha! What respect have you the front to claim as a mother country? You know that I am your mother country, and yet you pay me none. Nay, it is but the other day, that you hired ruffians* to rob me on the highway,t and burn my house! | For shame! Hide your face and hold your tongue. If you continue this conduct, you will make yourself the contempt of Europe !

Britain. O Lord ! Where are my friends ?

France, Spain, Holland, and Saxony, all together. Friends! Believe us, you have none, nor ever will have you mend your manners.

How can we, who are your neighbours, have any regard for you, or expect any equity from you, should your power increase, when we see how basely and unjustly you have used both your own mother and your own children?

any, till

* Prussians. it They entered and raised contributions in Saxony. | And they burnt the fine suburbs of Dresden, the capital of Saxony.



Question 1. SUPPOSING this debt to be only one hundred and ninety-five millions of pounds sterling at present, although it is much more,* and that was all to be counted in shillings, that a man could count at the rate of one hundred shillings per minute, for twelve hours each day, till he has counted the whole, how long would he take in doing it?

Answer. One hundred forty-eight years, one hundred nine days, and twenty-two hours.

Q. 2. The whole of this sum being three thousand nine hundred millions of shillings, and the coinage standard being sixty-two in the Troy pound, what is the whole weight of this sum ?

A. Sixty-one millions, seven hundred fifty-two thousand, four hundred and seventy-six Troy pounds.

Q. 3. How many ships would carry this weight, suppose one hundred tons each? · A. Three hundred and fourteen ships.

Q. 4. How many carts would carry this weight, , suppose a ton in each ?

A. Thirty-one thousand, four hundred and fiftytwo carts.

Q.5. The breadth of a shilling being one inch, if all these shillings were laid in a straight line, close to one another's edges, how long would that line be that would contain them?

At present (1777) it is said to be at least two hundred and thirty millions.

A. Sixty-one thousand, five hundred fifty-two miles; which is nine thousand, five hundred seventy-two miles more than twice round the whole circumference of the earth.

Q. 6. Suppose the interest of this debt to be three and a half per cent per annum, what does the whole annual interest amount to?

A. Six millions, seven hundred and seventy thousand pounds.

Q. 7. How doth government raise this interest annually?

A. By taxing those who lent the principal, and others.

Q. 8. When will government be able to pay the principal ?

A. When there is more money in England's treasury. than there is in all Europe.

Q. 9. And when will that be?
A. Never.

VOL. v.





In the time of the American war, the Moravian Society in England sent annually a vessel to their missionaries on the coast of Labrador. The Secretary of the Society, Mr. Hutton, applied to Dr. Franklin, then American minister in France, for a passport securing protection to that vessel against American cruisers. It was readily granted, and renewed every year during the war.

When Captain Cook was expected soon to return from his last voyage round the world, Dr. Franklin issued a passport of à similar kind for protecting his vessel, in case it should be met by American cruisers. This act was afterwards properly recognised. “When Cook's Voyage was printed,” says W. T. Franklin, “ the Admiralty Board sent a copy of the work in three volumes quarto to Dr. Franklin, accompanied with the elegant collection of plates, and a very polite letter from Lord Howe, signifying that the pres. ent was made with the King's express approbation.”

One of the gold medals, struck by the Royal Society in honor of Captain Cook, was likewise sent to Dr. Franklin. In the Life of Captain Cook, by Dr. Kippis, the author stated, that Congress disapproved and reversed the orders of Dr. Franklin; but Dr. Kippis became afterwards convinced of the error of this statement, and publicly acknowledged it. - Editor.



To all Captains and Commanders of Vessels of War,

Privateers, and Letters of Marque, belonging to the United States of America.

Gentlemen, The religious society commonly called the Moravian Brethren, having established a mission on the coast of Labrador, for the conversion of the savages there to the Christian religion, which has already had very good effects in turning them from their ancient practices of surprising, plundering, and murdering such white people, Americans and Europeans, as, for the purposes of trade or fishery, happened to come on that coast; and persuading them to lead a life of honest industry, and to treat strangers with humanity and kindness; and it being necessary for the support of this useful mission, that a small vessel should go thither every year to furnish supplies and necessaries for the missionaries and their converts; which vessel for the present year is a of about seventy-five tons, called the whereof is master Captain

This is to request you, that, if the said vessel should happen to fall into your hands, you would not suffer her to be plundered, or hindered in her voyage, but on the contrary afford her any assistance she may stand in need of; wherein I am confident your conduct will be approved by the Congress and your owners. Given at Passy, near Paris, this

B. FRANKLIN, Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States

of America at the Court of France. P. S. The same request is respectfully made to the commanders of armed vessels belonging to France and Spain, friends of the said United States.


day of



To all Captains and Commanders of armed Ships act

ing by Commission from the Congress of the United States of America, now in war with Great Britain.

Gentlemen, A ship having been fitted out from England before the commencement of this war, to make discoveries of

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