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Senator KNOWLAND. But I also, in frankness, must say that I have not yet seen any evidence produced tying Mr. Lilienthal to communism.
Senator MCKELLAR. You have not ?
You said a moment ago that you once had ideas of Government ownership in certain industrial fields and natural resources fields. Mr. FRANTZ. Yes, sir.
Senator BRICKER. You said that you now had a higher opinion of this form of government than you had at that time; that you have changed your ideas a bit. How far have you changed your opinions in regard to Government ownership? I do not care about the rest of it: just Government ownership.
Mr. FRANTZ. It is a hard thing to answer categorically, sir. I would say from the position in which public ownership was my first solution to a major problem, I have swung around to a position where it would be considerably less of a solution.
Senator BRICKER. Well, is there any field right now, as you observe our political economy, where that, as a last resort, is necessary in the public good?
Mr. FRANTZ. I don't think I am qualified, sir, to express a positive feeling on that. It has occurred to me from time to time that the coal industry may have ceased to be what you may call an economic industry. Perhaps that may account for some of its periodic troubles. But I am by no means a sufficiently qualified economist to pass on the question.
Senator BRICKER. Would you include any other fields beyond the coal industry!
Mr. Frantz. I would say, sir, that the experience in the gradual extension of public ownership and management in the production and distribution of electric power indicates that as an evolutionary process, that is a sound trend. That is my personal opinion. Senator BRICKER. Any other field ?
Mr. FRANTZ. I do feel rather strongly about the matter within the interest of this committee, though I have no reason why the committee should weigh my opinion; that the production of atomic energy should be within that category. The CHAIRMAN. There is no question but what that is now the case. Senator BRICKER. Any other field? Mr. FRANTZ. I don't think so; no. The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other questions? The committee will meet in room 457 in the morning at 10:30. That is the room where the meetings were held this morning.
(Whereupon, at 5:30 p. m., an adjournment was taken until Friday, February 21, 1947, at 10 a. m.)
CONFIRMATION OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
AND GENERAL MANAGER
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1947
UNITED STATES SENATE,
Washington, D.C. The committee met at 10:30 a. m., pursuant to adjournment, in room 457, Senate Office Building, Senator Bourke B. Hickenlooper (chairman), presiding.
Present: Senators Hickenlooper (chairman), Vandenberg, Knowland, Bricker, McMahon, Johnson, Connally, and Russell.
Present also: Senator McKellar.
Senator VANDENBERG. Mr. Chairman, before you call your first witness, I have received a letter this morning which I think it is my duty to read into the record. It certainly is from a great and dependable American, a great educator, and a man who has had a large part in America's atomic energy prestige.
I read a letter from president Karl T. Compton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is addressed to me, dated February 17, and reads as follows:
As one who has been somewhat in touch with the atomic energy development and in very close touch with most of the leaders in this development, I cannot refrain from expressing great concern over the consequences which I believe would follow if Lilienthal's appointment to the Atomic Energy Commission is not confirmed.
Having known him more or less for about a dozen years, and having been in conference with him several times since his appointment to this commission, I am convinced not only that he is well qualified for the post, but also that I would know no one as well qualified and possibly available.
However, my concern with the situation goes deeper than the fate of Lilienthal himself. He has won the respect and backing of the key people in the atomic energy development. Among them there is, so far as I can judge, a universal feeling of disillusionment and disgust over the manner in which the case has been handled by the Senate. If this should lead finally to failure to confirm him, I believe it will be a very serious blow to our future progress in the atomic energy field, especially in the direction of its practical application to industrial and military objectives.
This development is in the nature of the case dependent primarily upon the work of the nuclear physicists, chemists, and a very few research engineers, on whose findings the practical application must be built. · Already the projects at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos have been severely reduced in effectiveness by the withdrawal of a large portion of the scientific personnel after the war. The shortage of competent scientists and the competition for their services are very great indeed, and practically all of the keymen have many other offers, and most of them still on the job have stayed there from a sense of duty.
If, however, they become disillusioned or gain the impression that political or special interests are getting control of the program, I believe that it will collapse into a rather hollow shell. This, it seems to me, is the fundamental threat. Considerable harm has already been done, but I believe that much greater harm will be done if the confirmation is not made.
We can talk glibly, both nationally and internationally, about a great atomicenergy program, but it will be relatively empty talk unless this program is carried on with enthusiasm. Very sincerely yours,
KARL T. COMPTOX, President, Jassach usetts Institute of Technology. The CHAIRMAN. Is Roxie J. Paris in the audience? Mrs. Paris. Yes. The CHAIRMAN. Will you come forward, please?
Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth?
Mrs. Paris. I do.
TESTIMONY OF MRS. ROXIE J. PARIS, FOUNTAIN CITY, TENN.
The CHAIRMAN. Will you be seated, please? Will you give your name and your address and your occupation!
Mrs. Paris. Roxie J. Paris, Fountain City 18, Tenn.; secretarytreasurer of the Fountain City Disposal Co.
The CHAIRMAN. Is it Miss Paris or Mrs. Paris?
The CHAIRMAN. Therefore, I suggest that Senator McKellar ask you such questions as he cares to ask.
Senator McKELLAR. Mrs. Paris, what position did you hold in Knes County?
Mrs. Paris. Well, I have held several different ones.
Mrs. Paris. I was president of the Knox County Democratic Club, president of the ladies' auxiliary to the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, president of the auxiliary to the Central Labor Union, at one time secretary and treasurer of the International Teamsters' and Chauffeurs' Union, 621.
Senator MCKELLAR. Talk a little louder, will you please?
And at present I am secretary and treasurer of the Fountain City Disposal Co. I am a registered nurse by profession.
At present, I am a vice president of the Knox County Business Women's Association.
Sinator MCKELLAR. Have you ever been a delegate to the Central Labor Union ?
Mrs. PARIS. I have: 1937-38.
Mrs. Paris. President of the ladies' auxiliary to the Central Labor
Senator MCKELLAR. Did you ever have anything to do with the
Senator McKELLAR. Were you a member of the American Legion Auxiliary?
Mrs. Paris. Yes; I am an auxiliary member. Senator MCKELLAR. And the good government group of Knox County? Mrs. Paris. Yes. Senator MCKELLAR. You are a registered nurse, are you? Mrs. Paris. Yes, sir; I am a registered nurse.
Senator McKELLAR. Will you tell the committee if ever you became interested in the Communist activities in your county and what the circumstances were?
Mrs. Paris. You are leading up to me joining the party? My son was a graduate from Carson College, and at that time the depression years were on; he was unable to get a job. He applied at the TVA for work, filled in an application, and returned several different times there to get a report on it, and each time he could not get any satisfaction from them.
So one day he came home, reporting to me that on leaving the office he was told that if he joined the Communist Party he would get a joh? Senator McKELLAR. Told by whom?
Mrs. Paris. At that time he did not know of the boy's name, but that evening he attended a meeting at David Stone Martin's house and was told it was Henry Hart that had made the assertion to him, and he was also told that he would take care of him if he wanted to come to work. He brought home with him considerable material of the American League of Peace and Democracy and the International Communist and several other pieces of literature, which are in the files of Mr. Stripling. The CHAIRMAX. At that point, let me ask: Where is your son now? Mrs. Paris. My son is now finishing his ministerial course at the Southwestern Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex. The CHAIRMAN. And you were not at these meetings? Mrs. Paris. I was not at that meeting. I was at some meetings, but that was the meeting that first got me interested in joining the party.
The CHAIRMAX. As I understand it, you were not present when this conversation that you cited between your son
Mrs. Paris. He came home. That is what started me in the party. The CHAIRMAX. You are reporting what your son told to you?
Mrs. Paris. Yes; that was what interested me in joining the party, toll see.
The CHAIRMAX. You may proceed. I wanted to get that point straight.
Mrs. Paris. So then Mr. Robert Gear and his wife, Elsie Gear, were very much interested. They were from New York, and Mr. David Stone Martin, Mr. Francis Martin, Mr. Henry Hart, Mr. Kenneth Cameron, Mrs. Muriel Spears Borah Williams—she finally landed up; she was a Borah when I knew her-began to ask me to join the party,