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94 OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Hon. Ernest F. Hollings

Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources

Hon. Orrin Hatch, then Ranking Minority Member

Senate Committee on Armed Services

Hon. Jeff Bingaman, Chairman, Subcommittee on Defense, Industry and Technology

House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs

Hon. Morris Udall, Chairman

House Committee on Government Operations

Hon. John Conyers, Jr., Chairman

Hon. Doug Barnard, Jr., then Chairman, Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs

An Inconsistent Picture: A Compilation of Analyses of Economic Impacts of Competing

Approaches to Health Care Reform by Experts and Stakeholders

June 1993

In this report, OTA compiles available analyses of the anticipated impact of selected approaches to health care reform-single payer, play-or-pay, individual vouchers or tax credits, and managed competition on national health care spending and savings; Federal, State and local budgets; employers; employment; households; other costs in the economy; and administrative costs. OTA found that the analyses of the approaches and their variants are typically not comparable to one another; thus, the resulting quantitative estimates do not provide a consistent basis for projecting the potential economic impacts or proposed reforms. In order to assist policymakers as they compare available analyses, the report provides a checklist of key questions to ask regarding the various approaches or proposals and analyses of them.

Requested by:

Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources

Hon. Edward M. Kennedy, Chairman

House Committee on Energy and Commerce

Hon. John Dingell, Chairman

Endorser:

Hon. Charles Grassley, TAB member

Energy Efficiency Technologies for Central and Eastern Europe
July 1993

Technology transfer to improve the efficiency of energy use is a highly cost-effective way to
support economic reform, democratization, and stability in the former Communist countries.
Energy is used very wastefully in Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary and other formerly centrally
planned economies. This waste limits economic development and contributes to local and global
environmental degradation. Thus this report is timely for congressional deliberations on assistance
to the region, on how to increase U.S. exports, and on how to reduce environmental problems.
This report, the first publication from the assessment, Energy and Environmental Technology
Transfer to Central and Eastern Europe, focuses on the improvement of energy efficiency. It
reviews how energy is used in the former centrally planned economies. Then it analyzes the
potential effectiveness of modern technology in reducing energy waste and the factors that con-
strain improvements. The report also examines government programs assisting energy efficiency
technology transfer and opportunities for U.S. businesses. Finally, it discusses congressional policy

OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 95

Requested by:

Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works

Hon. Quentin N. Burdick, then Chairman

Hon. Joseph I. Lieberman

House Committee on Foreign Affairs

Hon. Dante B. Fascell, then Chairman

Hon. Lee H. Hamilton (now Chairman)

House Committee on Energy and Commerce

Hon. John Dingell, Chairman

Hon. Norman F. Lent, then Ranking Minority Member

Hon. Philip R. Sharp, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power
Hon. Carlos J. Moorhead

Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

Hon. Claiborne Pell, Chairman

Hon. Jesse Helms, Ranking Minority Member

Hon. Joseph Biden, Jr., Chairman, Subcommittee on European Affairs

Hon. Larry Pressler, then Ranking Minority Member

Who Goes There: Friend or Foe?

July 1993

This report examines the causes of fratricide, or "friendly fire," in combat and ways to reduce this tragic loss of life. Better identification, using both beacons and improved sensors, is obviously one way to reduce fratricides due to mistaken identification. Other equipment, although not designed primarily to reduce fratricide, will have that additional benefit. For example, improved communication and navigation equipment will make military units less likely to fire mistakenly on their nearby friends. Not all measures will require new equipment; changes in training, tactics, and doctrine can also reduce fratricide.

Requested by:

House Armed Services Committee

Hon. Les Aspin, Chairman

Hon. Bill Dickenson, Ranking Minority Member

Adult Literacy and New Technologies: Tools for a Lifetime
July 1993

Improving adult literacy in America is critical to the Nation's social and economic well-being. Computer, video, and telecommunications technologies can play an important role in addressing this complex issue.

The report examines America's literacy problem, shows how standards and requirements for literacy have increased over time, and documents the large number of Americans in need. The report focuses on the unique instructional needs of adult learners, now only partly met by the patchwork of adult literacy programs. The report analyzes how Federal policies have created an expanded but fragmented system and considers how technology could help overcome some

96 OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

Finally, the report considers why the potential of technology is not being exploited, identifying significant barriers that inhibit wider and more sophisticated uses. A future in which new applications of technology serve more adults and enable them to learn anyplace, anytime, is sketched. Options for Congress center on building a base of technology for literacy, improving the system of adult literacy education, experimenting with new alternatives, and rethinking the Federal role. Requested by:

House Committee on Education and Labor

Hon. Augustus F. Hawkins, then Chairman

Hon. William F. Goodling, Ranking Republican Member

Hon. William D. Ford, member (now Chairman)

Hon. Thomas C. Sawyer, member

Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources

Hon. Edward M. Kennedy, Chairman

Hon. Orrin G. Hatch

Endorsed by:

Joint Economic Committee

Hon. Lee H. Hamilton, Chairman

Hon. William V. Roth, Jr., Ranking Republican Member

The Future of Remote Sensing from Space: Civilian Satellite Systems and Applications
July 1993

This report is the first major publication of an on-going assessment of Earth Observation Systems. It examines the future of civilian remote sensing satellites and systems. In particular, it provides a guide to the sensors and systems operating today and those planned for the future. The report also explores issues of innovation in remote sensing technology and briefly examines the many applications of remotely sensed data. In addition, the report examines the use of civilian data for military purposes, although it does not investigate the potential civilian use of classified remotely sensed data acquired for national security purposes.

Requested by:

House Committee on Science, Space and Technology

Hon. George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman

Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation

Hon. Ernest F. Hollings, Chairman

Hon. Albert Gore, Jr., then Chairman, Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space

Hon. Larry Pressler, Ranking Member

Water for Walker Lake

September 1993

The surface elevation of Walker Lake has fallen about 120 feet since the early 1900's, due largely to agriculture diversions and OTA was asked if any steps could be taken to prevent this continuing decline in lake levels. The decline in water levels has reached the point that a number of experts believe that the Lahontan cutthroat trout, the basis for recreational fishing in the lake, are seriously threatened by increasing concentrations of dissolved solids in the lake.

In this report, OTA concludes that there are many technical opportunities to increase the inflow of water to Walker Lake, and thus to decrease the concentrations of total dissolved solids. But for this to happen it will first require that the various interest groups in the Walker Lake watershed

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25 Other Services

Obligations for services acquired by contract that provide management and professional support services; studies, analyses, and evaluations. Includes on-site (in-house) contractors, panelists and obligations for services associated with an OTA assessment or study. Excludes personnel appointments and advisory committees, which are classified under object class 11. Also includes obligations for building maintenance and repairs when done by contract, temporary secretarial services, training and meeting registration, court reporting, equipment services not covered under rental agreement, services of editors and proofreaders, maintenance agreements for office equipment, computerized information retrieval, development of software, and advertising.

26 Supplies and Materials

Obligations for supplies and materials that are ordinarily consumed or expended within one year after they are purchased or that are used to form a minor part of equipment or fixed property; subscriptions for journals, magazines, newspapers, etc., pamphlets and leaflets or minor publications having an expected useful life of less than one year and that are not for the permanent collection; and ADP supplies (e.g., computer disks, tapes or off-the-shelf software).

31 Equipment

Obligations for personal property or equipment that is of a durable nature which normally may be expected to have a period of service of a year or more after purchase without material impairment of its physical condition, such as: (1) major purchased equipment and furnishing; (2) minor movable equipment for office use; (3) computer equipment; (4) audiovisual equipment; (5) books, bound reports, directories, etc. for OTA's Information Center permanent collection; and (6) charges for the initial installation of equipment when performed by the vendor. This object class consists of both non-capitalized equipment (purchases orders under $5,000) and capitalized equipment (unit

Supplementary

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