The Education of Selves: How Psychology Transformed Students

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OUP USA, Feb 14, 2013 - Psychology - 230 pages
Most contemporary North Americans, as well as many other Westerners, take for granted their conceptions of themselves as individuals with uniquely valuable and complex inner lives — lives filled with beliefs, imaginings, understandings, and motives that determine their actions and accomplishments. Yet, such psychological conceptions of selfhood are relatively recent, dating mostly from the late eighteenth century. Perhaps more surprisingly, our understandings of ourselves as creatively self-expressive and strategically self-managing are, for the most part, products of twentieth-century innovations in Enlightenment-based social sciences, especially psychology. Fueled by the enthusiasm for self-expression and self-actualization that emerged in the 1960s, humanistic, cognitive, developmental, and educational psychologists published widely on the overwhelmingly positive consequences of increased self-esteem in children and adolescents. While previous generations had been wary of self-confidence and self-interest, these qualities became widely regarded as desirable traits to be cultivated in both the home and the school. In The Education of Selves, Jack Martin and Ann-Marie McLellan examine ways in which psychological theories, research, and interventions employed in American and Canadian schools during the last half of the twentieth century changed our understanding of students, conceptualizing ideal students as self-expressive, enterprising, and entitled to forms of education that recognize and cater to such expressivity and enterprise. The authors address each of the major programs of psychological research and intervention in American and Canadian schools from 1950 to 2000: self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. They give critical consideration to definitions and conceptualizations, research measures and methods, intervention practices, and the social, cultural consequences of these programs of inquiry and practice. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen a backlash against what some have come to regard as a self-absorbed generation of young people. Such criticism may be interpreted, at least in part, as a reaction to the scientific and professional activities of psychologists, many of whom now appear to share in the general concern about where their activities have left students, schools, and society at large.
 

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Contents

1 An Introduction to a Critical History of Psychology in Education
1
The Transformation Begins
19
3 Educational Psychologys Role in the Education of Selves
43
SelfEsteem as an Educational Goal
63
All About SelfConcept
89
SelfEfficacy and Agency
115
SelfRegulation at School and Beyond
135
The TripleE Student Expressive Enterprising Entitled
155
Educating Communal Agents
177
References
201
Index
221
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About the author (2013)


Jack Martin is Burnaby Mountain Endowed Professor in Historical, Quantitative, and Theoretical Psychology at Simon Fraser University. In addition to his interests in the theory, history, and methods of psychology, he conducts research in educational psychology, social-developmental psychology, cultural psychology, narrative psychology, and psychotherapy. He is especially interested in the psychology of personhood, including selfhood, moral and rational agency, perspective taking, personal and social identity, and the socio-cultural bases of personhood.

Ann-Marie McLellan is a faculty member in the Department of Educational Studies at Kwantlen Polytechnic University. Her scholarly work is in the areas of educational psychology, the theory and history of psychology, and the relationships between psychology and education. She has a specific interest in critical historical studies of psychological theories, research, and practices of selfhood, particularly as applied to the development and education of students.

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