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Abbasid al-harb al-islam arms Augustine behavior bishops caliph century chap Christendom Christian church civitas claim classical Islamic classical juristic concept of jihad conduct conflict contemporary context Crusades dar al-harb dar al-islam defensive jihad defined developed distinction divine doctrine empire enemies ethics faith Farabi's fighting force further Johnson ghaza ghazi God's historical holy war idea of holy idea of jihad ijtihad imam Islamic community Islamic culture Islamic juristic Islamic tradition juristic tradition justified Kelsay Khadduri Kharijite Lambton leader leadership levee en masse limits medieval military model of jihad moral Muhammad Muslim Muslim community non-Muslim normative tradition offensive Ottoman peace Peace of God persons political community pope Prophet Qur'an rejection religio-political religion religious and political religious authority restraints role rule rulers Sachedina Saladin secular Shaybani Shi'ite Siyar sphere sultan Sunni temporal Thirty Years War Umayyad unbelievers understanding wage jihad war for religion warfare wars West Western culture
Seite 4 - A civilization is thus the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species.
Seite 8 - What ... an individual has to learn is how to test dialectically the theses proposed to him or her by each competing tradition, while also drawing upon these same theses in order to test dialectically those convictions and responses which he or she has brought to the encounter. Such a person has to become involved in the conversation between traditions, learning to use the idiom of each in order to describe and evaluate the other or others by means of it.
Seite 5 - The people of different civilization have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views on the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy.
Seite 5 - ... the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences are the product of centuries. They will not soon disappear. They are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes. Differences do not necessarily mean conflict, and conflict does not necessarily mean violence. Over the centuries, however, differences among civilizations have generated the most prolonged and the most violent conflicts.
Seite 7 - I shall argue, a conception of rational enquiry as embodied in a tradition, a conception according to which the standards of rational justification themselves emerge from and are part of a history in which they are vindicated by the way in which they transcend the limitations of and provide remedies for the defects of their predecessors within the history of that same tradition.
Seite 6 - West to maintain the economic and military power necessary to protect its interests in relation to these civilizations. It will also, however, require the West to develop a more profound understanding of the basic religious and philosophical assumptions underlying other civilizations and the ways in which people in those civilizations see their interest.